The Loki-100G-5S-1P is a 5-speed (10GE, 25GE, 40GE, 50GE, 100GE) dual-media test module.


New 5-speed dual-media test module
The new Xena Networks 5-speed dual-media test module Loki-100G-5S-1P is a versatile test solution offering five different Ethernet network speeds: 10GE, 25GE, 40GE, 50GE and 100GE. This unique test module lets users dynamically choose between two different physical transceiver cages and form factors. The first is a single QSFP28/QSFP+ transceiver cage, and the second is two SFP28/SFP+ transceiver cages.

When using the QSFP28/QSFP+ cage, the user can dynamically select between the following modes of operation: 4x10GE / 1x40GE / 4x25GE / 2x50GE / 1x100GE test ports, and when using the dual SFP28 cages: 2 x 10GE / 2x25GE.

The unique combination of five different Ethernet network speeds and multiple physical optical transceiver form factors, makes the Loki-100G-5S-1P a versatile solution for performance and functional testing of network infrastructure and Ethernet equipment such as taps, switches, routers, NICs, packet-brokers, and backhaul platforms.

One module – multiple options

The Loki-100G-5S-1P lets you dynamically choose between 2 transceiver cages. This determines which speeds and number of ports you can use. Once the physical transceiver cage is in use, you can use ValkyrieManager (Xena’s free traffic generation and analysis software) to specify which Ethernet speeds to use.

Unique Eye Diagram

The new Xena Networks 5-speed dual-media test module Loki-100G-5S-1P includes a unique feature for analyzing signal quality called the “eye diagram”. When using the QSFP28 ports, an additional panel called “Advanced PHY Features“ will appear in the main Resource Properties tab of ValkyrieManager. This panel controls and monitors the four receive SerDes associated with the 4x10G or 4x25G link at the physical level. It also creates bit-error-rate (BER) eye diagrams, estimates the link BER from the vertical and horizontal BER bathtub curves and controls the PHY tuning in the transmit and the receive directions.

How it works
The BER eye-diagram provides a direct visual representation of the signal quality after RX equalization. The eye-diagram is formed by changing the time dimension (sampling delay) and the amplitude dimension (0/1 threshold) of the sampling point of the PHY step-by-step. For each sampling point (x,y), 1 million bits are measured, the number of bit-errors are counted and a simple division gives the BER. The result is the BER eye-diagram (see below).

The color map shows the measured bit-error rate for each point going from 1 million (maximum red) to zero (black). The color scale is logarithmic. Higher resolutions give a clearer diagram and higher values of X and Y will also give a higher precision in the vertical and horizontal bathtub curve estimations, respectively.

What it shows
The eye-data table provides an estimate of several parameters of the eye, including width, height and jitter. Future releases will also include link BER estimates based on the horizontal and vertical bathtub curves.

See here for more information on the “eye” diagram feature.



  • Multi-speed flexibility 10GE, 25GE, 40GE, 50GE and 100GE
  • Double media flexibility
  • Great price/performance
  • Ease of use
  • Unique “eye” diagram for signal analysis
  • Free software
  • Three years’ free SW updates
  • Three years’ free hardware warranty
  • Free tech support for product lifetime

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  1. Interface category

    QSFP28: 100G, 50G, 40G*, 25G, and 10G* Ethernet depending on transceiver capabilities

    QSFP+: 40G and 10G Ethernet
    SFP28: 25GE Ethernet
    SFP+: 10G Ethernet

  2. Number of test ports

    QSFP28: 1 x 100G, 2 x 50G, 1 x 40G, 4 x 25G, and 4 x 10G Ethernet
    QSFP+: 1 x 40G and 4 x 10G Ethernet
    SFP28: 2 x 25GE and 2 x 10G Ethernet
    SFP+: 2 x 10G Ethernet

  3. Interface options

    1 x 100GBASE-SR4, 1 x 100GBASE-LR4, 1 x 100GBASE-CWDM4, 1 x 100GBASE-CR4, or
    2 x 50GBASE-SR2, 2 x 50GBASE-LR2, 2 x 50GBASE-CR2, or
    4 x 25GBASE-SR, 4 x 25GBASE-LR, 4 x 25GBASE-CR, or
    1 x 40GBASE-SR4, 1 x 40GBASE-LR4, 1 x 40GBASE-CR4, or
    4 x 10GBASE-iSRQSFP+:
    1 x 40GBASE-SR4, 1 x 40GBASE-LR4, 1 x 40GBASE-CR4, or
    4 x 10GBASE-iSR

    2 x 25GBASE-SR / 25GBASE-LR / 25GBASE-CR, or
    2 x 10GBASE-SR / 10GBASE-LR / 10GBASE-CR

    2 x 10GBASE-SR / 10GBASE-LR / 10GBASE-CR

  4. Forward Error Correction (FEC)

    RS-FEC (Reed Solomon) 528,514,t=7, IEEE 802.3 Clause 91 (100GE)
    RS-FEC (Reed Solomon) 528,514,t=7, IEEE 802.3 Clause 108 (25GE)
    RS-FEC (Reed Solomon) 528,514,t=7, 25/50G Ethernet Consortium (25/50GE)

  5. Number of transceiver module cages

    1 x QSFP28/QSFP+ and 2 x SFP28/SFP+ (use QSFP28/QSFP+ or SFP28/SFP+ cages)

  6. Port statistics (2)

    Link state, FCS errors, pause frames, ARP/PING, error injections, training packet
    All traffic: RX and TX Mbit/s, packets/s, packets, bytes
    Traffic w/o test payload: RX and TX Mbit/s, packets/s, packets, bytes

  7. Adjustable Inter Frame Gap (IFG)

    Configurable from 16 to 56 bytes, default is 20B (12B IFG + 8B preamble)

  8. Transmit line rate adjustment

    Ability to adjust the effective line rate by forcing idle gaps equivalent to -1000 ppm (increments of 10 ppm)

  9. Transmit line clock adjustment

    From -400 to 400 ppm in steps of 0.001 ppm (shared across all ports)

  10. ARP/PING

    Supported (configurable IP and MAC address per port)

  11. Field upgradeable

    System is fully field upgradeable to product releases (FPGA images and Software)

  12. Histogram statistics (2)

    Two real-time histograms per port. Each histogram can measure one of RX/TX packet length, IFG, jitter, or latency distribution for all traffic, a specific stream, or a filter.

  13. Tx disable

    Enable/disable of optical laser or copper link

  14. IGMPv2 multicast join/leave

    IGMPv2 continuous multicast join, with configurable repeat interval

  15. Loopback modes

    • L1RX2TX – RX-to-TX, transmit byte-by-byte copy of the incoming packet
    • L2RX2TX – RX-to-TX, swap source and destination MAC addresses (1)
    • L3RX2TX – RX-to-TX, swap source and destination MAC addresses and IP addresses (1)
    • TXON2RX – TX-to-RX, packet is also transmitted from the port
    • TXOFF2RX – TX-to-RX, port’s transmitter is idle
    • Port-to-port – Inline loop mode where all traffic is looped 100% transparent at L1

  16. Oscillator characteristics

    • Initial Accuracy is 3 ppm
    • Frequency drift over 1st year: +/- 3 ppm (over 15 years: +/- 15 ppm)
    • Temperature Stability: +/- 20 ppm (Total Stability is +/- 35 ppm)


  1. Number of transmit streams per port

    256 (wire-speed) continuous.

  2. Test payload insertion per stream

    Wire-speed packet generation with timestamps, sequence numbers, and data integrity signature optionally inserted into each packet.

  3. Stream statistics (2)

    TX Mbit/s, packets/s, packets, bytes, FCS error

  4. Bandwidth profiles

    Burst size and density can be specified. Uniform and bursty bandwidth profile streams can be interleaved

  5. Field modifiers

    16-bit or 32-bit header field modifiers with inc, dec, or random mode. Each modifier has configurable bit-mask, repetition, min, max, and step parameters. 8 16-bit or 4 32-bit modifiers per stream.

  6. Packet length controls

    Fixed, random, butterfly, and incrementing packet length distributions. Packet length from 56 to 12288 bytes

  7. Packet payloads

    Repeated user specified 1 to 18B pattern, an 8-bit incrementing pattern

  8. Error generation

    Undersize length (56B min) and oversize length (12288 max.) packet lengths, injection of sequence, misorder, payload integrity, and FCS errors

  9. TX packet header support and RX autodecodes

    Ethernet, Ethernet II, VLAN, ARP, IPv4, IPv6, UDP, TCP, LLC, SNAP, GTP, ICMP, RTP, RTCP, STP, MPLS, PBB, or fully specified by user

  10. Pause Frames

    Responds to incoming pause and PFC (Priority-based Flow Control) frames

  11. Packet scheduling modes

    • Normal (stream interleaved mode). Standard scheduling mode, precise rates, minor variation in packet inter-frame gap.
    • Strict Uniform. New scheduling mode, with 100% uniform packet inter-frame gap, minor deviation from configured rates.
    • Sequential packet scheduling (sequential stream scheduling). Streams are scheduled continuously in sequential order, with configurable number of packets per stream.
    • Burst. Up to 10000 packets per stream are organized in bursts. Bursts from active streams form a burst group. The user specifies time from start of one burst group till start of next burst group.


  1. Number of traceable Rx streams per port

    2016 (wire-speed)

  2. Automatic detection of test payload for received packets

    Real-time reporting of statistics and latency, loss, payload integrity, sequence error, and misorder error checking

  3. Jitter measurement

    Jitter (Packet Delay Variation) measurements compliant to MEF10 standard with 8 ns accuracy. Jitter can be measured on up to 32 streams.

  4. Stream statistics (2)

    • RX Mbit/s, packets/s, packets, bytes.
    • Loss, payload integrity errors, sequence errors, misorder errors
    • Min latency, max latency, average latency
    • Min jitter, max jitter, average jitter

  5. Latency measurements accuracy

    ±32 ns (opto/elec).

  6. Latency measurement resolution

    8 ns (Latency measurements can calibrate and remove latency from transceiver modules)

  7. Number of filters:

    • 6 x 64-bit user-definable match-term patterns with mask, and offset
    • 6 x frame length comparator terms (longer, shorter)
    • 6 x user-defined filters expressed from AND/OR’ing of the match and length terms.

  8. Filter statistics (2)

    Per filter: RX Mbit/s, packets/s, packets, bytes.


  1. Capture criteria

    All traffic, stream, FCS errors, filter match, or traffic without test payloads

  2. Capture start/stop triggers

    Capture start and stop trigger: none, FCS error, filter match

  3. Capture limit per packet

    16 – 12288 bytes

  4. Wire-speed capture buffer per port

    256 kB for 100G
    128 kB for 40G

  5. Low speed capture buffer per port (10Mbit/sec)

    4096 packets (any size)


  1. Transmit Equalization Controls

    – Tx Transmit Equalization Controls Pre-emphasis
    – Tx Attenuation
    – Tx Post-emphasis Signal Integrity Analysis Graphical “eye” diagram
    – Rx Optional Auto-Tune of PHY 25Gbps Rx SerDes

  2. Signal Integrity Analysis

    – Graphical “eye” diagram
    – Horizontal bathtub curve estimation
    – Vertical bathtub curve estimation
    – Bit Error Rate (BER) estimation

  3. 100G 803.bj Clause 91 Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction (CL91 RS-FEC)


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